History of Artificial intelligence

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History of Artificial Intelligence

History of Artificial Intelligence starts (1943 – 1956). Artificial Intelligence has roots in a number of scientific disciplines like Computer science and engineering (hardware and software), Philosophy (rules of reasoning), Mathematics (logic, algorithms, optimization), Cognitive science and psychology (forming high level human/animal thinking), Neural science (model low level human/animal brain activity)

The Birth of AI (1943 – 1956)

Pitts and McCulloch (1943): The simplified mathematical model of neurons (resting/firing states) can realize all propositional logic primitives (can compute all Turing computable functions)

Allen Turing: Turing machine and Turing test (1950)

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Highlighting on intelligent general problem solving (1952-1969)

Knowledge-Based Systems (1969 – 1999)

DENDRAL: The first knowledge-intensive system (determining 3D structures of complex chemical compounds)

MYCIN: first rule-based expert system (containing 450 rules for diagnosing blood infectious diseases)

PROSPECTOR: The first knowledge-based system that made a significant profit

AI Became an Industry (1980 – 1989)

Wide applications in various domains, commercially available tools

Current Trends (1990 – Present)

More realistic goals, and More practical (application-oriented), Distributed AI and intelligent software agents, Resurgence of neural networks and emergence of genetic algorithms.

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