The Turing test, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was aimed to provide an acceptable operational definition of intelligence. Turing clear intellectual behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all rational tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator. The test, which Turing called the imitation game, places the machine and a human counterpart in rooms apart from a second human being, referred to as the interrogator. The test is that the computer should be interrogated by a human via a teletype, and passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or a human on the other side. The interrogator is asked to distinguish the computer from the human being solely on the basis of their answers to questions asked over this device. If the interrogator cannot distinguish the machine from the human, then, Turing argues, the machine may be assumed to be intelligent.
Programming a computer to pass the test, the computer would need to have the following capabilities:
Natural language processing: Enables it to communicate successfully in human language.
Knowledge representation: Stores information provided before or during the interrogation.
Automated reasoning: Uses the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions. Machine learning: Adapted to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.
Total Turing Test: Includes a video sign so that the interrogator can test the subject’s perceptual abilities. To pass the Turing Test, the computer will need it.
Computer vision: For the purpose of perceiving objects.