Brain Disorders Names and List

Brain Disorders Names and List

There are many kinds of brain disorders that can impair cognitive functioning. Brain syndromes can give us valuable insight into the functioning of the brain. Major disorders of the brain are given as:

  • Stroke
  • Brain tumors
  • Head injuries


Vascular-disorder is a kind of brain disorder which caused by a stroke. Strokes occur whenever the flow of blood to the brain experiences a sudden disruption. Those people who experience stroke usually show marked loss of cognitive functioning. The nature of the loss depends upon the area of the brain that is affected by the stroke. There may be pain, paralysis, numbness, a loss of language comprehension, a loss of speech, impairments in thought processes, a loss of movement in parts of the body, or other symptoms.

Brain Disorders

Figure: Brain Stroke

Two types of stroke may occur.

  1. An ischemic stroke which is generally occurs when a buildup of fatty-tissue arises in blood vessels over a period of years, and a piece of this tissue breaks off and gets stuck in arteries of the Ischemic strokes that can be cured by clot-busting drugs.
  2. hemorrhagic stroke it befalls when a blood-vessel in the brain rapidly breaks. Blood then leaks into surrounding tissue. As the blood leaks over, brain cells in the affected areas initiate to die. This death is either from the lack of nutrients and oxygen or from the breach of the vessel and the sudden leaking of blood.

The prediction for stroke sufferers depends on the type and severity of damage. Symptoms of stroke occurs suddenly on the occurrence of stroke.
Typical symptoms comprise

  • Emotionlessness or weakness in the face, arms, or legs specifically on one side of the
  • Confusion and difficulty in speaking or trouble in understanding of speech.
  • Vision instabilities in one or both eyes
  • Dizziness, trouble in walking, loss of balance or co-ordination
  • Severe headache with unknown cause

Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are also called as neoplasms and can affect cognitive functioning in very serious ways. Tumors can arise in either the gray or the white matter of the brain. Tumors of the white matter are more usually common. Two kinds of brain tumors can occur. primary brain-tumors start in the brain; most childhood brain tumors are the examples of this type. Secondary brain-tumors start as tumors.
anywhere else in the body, such as in the lungs. Brain tumors can be also benign or malicious.

  • Benign tumors do not comprise cancer cells. They normally can be removed and will not grow back. Cells from benign tumors do not attack surrounding cells or spread to other body parts. Though, if they press against sensitive areas of the brain, they can result in severe cognitive impairments. They also can be dangerous, unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body.
  • Malignant brain tumors contain cancer cells. They are more severe and generally threaten the victim’s life. They sometimes grow rapidly. They also tend to attack surrounding healthy brain tissue. In rare cases, malignant-cells might break away and cause cancer in other parts of the body. Following are the most common symptoms of brain tumors:
  • Headaches generally worse in the morning.
  • Sickness or vomiting.
  • Alterations in speech, vision, or hearing.
  • Problems in balancing or walking.
  • Changes in mood or in personality and ability to concentrate.
  • Difficulties with memory.
  • Muscle-jerking or twitching seizures or convulsions
  • Unresponsiveness or tingling in the arms or legs

Head Injuries

Head injuries usually result from numerous causes, for example  a car accident, contact with a hard
object, or a bullet wound and so on. Head injuries are of major two types.

  • Closed-Head Injuries, in these injuries the skull remains integral but there is damage to the brain, normally from the mechanical force of a blow to the head. Slamming someone’s head against a wind-shield in a car accident may result in such an injury.
  • Open-Head Injuries, these are the kind of injures in which the skull does not remain
    integral but rather is breached, such as by a bullet. Head injuries are unpredictably common. Approximately 1.4 million North Americans undergo such injuries each year. Around 50,000 of them die, and 235,000 need to be Roughly 2% of the American population wants long-term aid in their daily living due to head injuries. Loss of consciousness is an indication that there has been some degree of damage to the brain as a result of the injury. Damage causing from head injury can contain difficulty in swallowing, spastic movements, and slurring of speech, among many other cognitive problems. Instant symptoms of a head injury include
  • Unconsciousness
  • Abnormal-breathing
  • Obvious severe wound or fracture
  • Bleeding or clear fluid from the nose, ear, or mouth
  • Trouble of speech or vision
  • Pupils of unequal size
  • Dizziness
  • Neck pain or rigidity
  • Seizure
  • Vomiting more than two to more times

Read More Brain and cognition in cognitive psychology


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